The Chemistry of Making Bread (sem o google tradutor)
When we mix those ingredients together-flour, sugar, yeast, and water- , let time pass and add heat, they suffer a chemical change to form a new product – that warm, delicious loaf of bread.
Yeasts are living, single-celled organisms. Like all living things, they eat food and produce waste. The yeast in bread dough consumes sugar (glucose) and produces carbon dioxide and alcohol.
Yeast cells reproduce very rapidly. While reproducing, each tiny cell swells, and soon the swollen part separates from the main cell. The new tiny cell goes on to grow to full size and this process continues to repeat itself.
During this growth process, the yeast cells produce substances called enzymes. So when the yeast is added to cake or bread dough, one enzyme goes to work on the flour, changing the starch in it into sugar. Another enzyme then takes over and changes the sugar into alcohol and a gas called carbon dioxide. This gas spreads in the dough in the form of bubbles. As the dough bakes into bread and cake, the heat causes the alcohol to evaporate and the bubbles to break. This leaves the tiny air pockets in the final bread or cake, making it light and fluffy.
You don’t have to be a scientist to know that the proper way to eat freshly baked bread is with plenty of lipids and fructose. In other words, butter and jam !